Category: Health

Composition of a Tooth

Tooth Enamel

The part of the teeth you’re most familiar with is the tooth enamel. This is the hard, translucent, outer covering of the tooth. It is this part of the tooth that cavities can destroy and leave the tooth vulnerable to further decay and disease. The enamel is said to be the hardest and most mineral-packed substance of the body. Tooth enamel is made up of mostly minerals, with some organic compounds and water. The enamel is the thickest (and strongest) at the cusp of the tooth and is weakest along the tooth edges.

As we age, the years of use, abuse and wear and tear, the enamel slowly wears off in what is called attrition.

What is enamel made of? Crystalline calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite accounts for most of the minerals found in tooth enamel. These minerals give teeth their strength, as well as their brittleness. Enamel also doesn’t contain collagen like other parts of the tooth. Tuftelins, ameloblastsins, ameloblenins and enamelins are proteins that help develop enamel.

Dentin

Underneath the enamel is a porous, yellowish material called dentin. It is this material that gives teeth their classic yellow, or preferably white color. Dentin is made up of inorganic and organic materials as well as water. It is made of mineralized connective tissue and collagen proteins. Dentinogenesis, or the process of forming dentin involves the secretion by odontoblasts of the tooth pulp. Dentin contains a matrix of microscopic tubules that don’t criss-cross each other. The length of the tubules are determined by the radius of one’s tooth. Dentin is the substance between enamel or cementum and the pulp chamber.

While dentin isn’t as strong as enamel, it still gives your teeth extra strength, support and protection. Because it is softer than enamel, it decays more rapidly and is subject to severe cavities if not properly treated, but dentin still acts as a protective layer and supports the crown of the tooth.

Cementum

The innermost layer of the tooth is called the cementum. This part of the tooth resembles bone and it covers the tooth pulp. Like the tooth enamel and dentin, the cementum is made of inorganic (mostly hydroxyapatite), organic (mostly collagen) and water. Cementum is softer than the enamel and dentin and is secreted by cementoblasts that are in the root of the tooth. It too has a yellowish color and is the thickest around the apex of the tooth root. This part of the tooth has the purpose of being a medium through which the periodontal ligaments (the ligaments of the gums) attach to the tooth, giving the tooth stability.

Tooth Pulp

In the center of each tooth is the pulp. The pulp consists of connective tissue that contains nerves and blood vessels. The tooth pulp supplies the tooth with blood and nutrients as well as infection-fighting macrophages and T lymphocytes. It is in the pulp where the odontoblasts which make dentin are located as well as nerve endings, which give the tooth the ability to react to hot or cold food and drink.

Popular Food Fads

Fruit juices are as good as fresh fruits

Many people prefer to drink fruit juices as compared to eating fresh fruit. Cold juice is a lot more refreshing than eating fruits. However, juicing removes the healthy fiber content of fruits, though it still retains the vitamins and minerals that are present in the fruit. Fiber is an important part of our diet, and helps to keep our cholesterol low and bowels healthy. When possible, opt for fresh fruit rather than fruit juice.

Coconut oil is good for you

This has been a controversial topic for quite sometime now, but things are now getting clearer. It was previously believed that coconut oil is good for you, but there does not appear to be any scientific evidence to support that. In fact, coconut oil is loaded with harmful saturated fats that are responsible for the clogging up of the heart arteries. The American Heart Association issued a statement recently debunking the health benefits of coconut oil, stating that is does more harm than good. When possible, use olive oil or rice bran oil.

A gluten free diet is better for health

This is a popular food fad. There is absolutely no truth in the statement that gluten free food is good for you and healthier than regular food. In fact, gluten free food is only good for those who have gluten intolerance or a condition called coeliac disease. Opt for whole wheat items instead as a healthy food choice. In fact, make sure you choose a diet that is high in soluble fiber, as this has a number of properties ofprotecting your heart.

Eggs are bad for you

While the yolks in eggs can increase cholesterol levels to an extent, they do not seem to do so in worrying levels at all. Instead, they are packed with vitamins and good fats along with the highest quality protein. Try and limit yourself to no more than 3 yolks a week.

Anti-oxidant supplements are better

Using anti-oxidant supplements are in no way superior to eating fruits and vegetables that contain them. In fact, it is better to opt for natural sources due to the added benefits they have. Keep your choice of vegetables colorful and expand your choice and variety in your cooking.

Headaches in Children

Scalp, skull, and brain

The brain is housed inside the skull bone. The skin covering the head is called the scalp. Many muscles, nerves, and blood vessels crisscross the thickness of the scalp.

Tension or stress headaches

Emotions, both bad and good, can cause headaches. More commonly, in the case of headaches, bad emotions fire up the muscles of the head and face.

The frontalis muscle stretches over the forehead and the occipitalis covers the back of the head. The temporalis muscle is located on the sides of the head. The masseter muscle is in the cheek area and parts of the trapezius muscle extend to the upper neck.

Nearby nerves pick up noxious tensions from these muscles and transmit them to the pain awareness center of the brain.

Migraine headaches

Unlike a tension headache, which is clearly known to arise from the tightening muscles of the head and neck area, the cause of a migraine headache is still debated. A disturbance of the brain’s biological and physiological elements-hormones, peptides, dilatation and constriction of brain blood vessels-is implicated.

Other causes of headaches

Headaches also often go with many illnesses. Malaria, ear infection, sinus infection, throat infection, runny nose, and toothache are examples of diseases which come with a headache. This kind of headache goes away once the illness has run its course.

Three pictures of headaches recently seen in my private office

  • Take the case of a seventeen-year-old female who has had headaches on and off over a couple of months. She wears music earphones and plays music all night long. A constant bombardment of music to the ear, together with a lack of sleep, contributed to her headache.
  • There was an 18-year-old boy who presented with a headache for the first time. He goes to school from 7 am until 5 pm, and then works in a factory from 6 pm until 11 pm. In between school and job, he has plenty of personal errands to run. He hardly sleeps.
  • Then there is a nine-year-old male whose mother has been picking him up twice a week from school because of headaches in class. He throws up when a headache comes. Light and sound bother him a lot during the headache episodes. His mother and grandmother have suffered from migraine headaches their entire lives. The child saw a neurologist, who sent him for imaging studies, MRI of the brain, which was normal. I then confirmed he was also suffering from migraine and started preventative medication.

Evaluating children with headaches

When presented with a child who complains of a headache that comes and goes, be it at a daily, weekly or monthly interval, the practitioner must consider one of these conditions.

  • Is the child merely repeating what they hear from the nearest caregiver, for example a grandmother, mother, or older sister, who goes around saying ‘I have a headache’? I have singled out women because men tend to internalize suffering.
  • Does the child genuinely have a common-type headache, also known as a tension headache, which many adults experience? Sufferers feel a dull aching pain and pressure over the forehead, sides and back of the head, and sometimes neck.
  • Does the boy or girl have a particularly agonizing kind of a headache called migraine headache, that runs in the family, lasts for hours at a time, is worsened by exposure to light and sound, occurs on one side of the head, and is accompanied or preceded by tummy-ache, nausea, and vomiting?
  • Does the youngster, especially when under age five, have a more ominous medical condition such as infection around the brain, bleeding in the brain, or a tumor in the brain? Clues include a headache which begins early in the morning, keeps the child awake at night, and is worse when coughing, sneezing, urinating or passing stools.
  • Is this a one of a kind headache, a headache so severe that it surpasses any pain the patient has suffered in the past? This description may point to a lethal condition: bleeding in the brain, the ballooning or aneurysm of vessels in the brain, and other surgical emergencies.

Modern Way To Replace Missing Teeth

Dental implants are titanium based small screws which are made to fit inside a jaw bone. Implants come in a variety of measurements. They vary in sizes according to the tooth. There are however two components of dental implants. One is the titanium screw and the other is the tooth portion. The titanium screw is drilled inside the jaw and left for further osseointegration.

This is a procedure of blending in of the two components together i.e. bone and the titanium post. When the bone gets completely adapted to the foreign body, i.e. after about three months, it is time for the next appointment to fix the tooth portion on the titanium post. The tooth portion is something that will be seen in the oral cavity.

Dental implants are undoubtedly the most effective, efficient and the most modern way to replace the teeth. There are many other dentures which have been and are being used by the dentists even today as they are more feasible cost wise as well as technique wise. The removable dentures are the oldest treatment option when it comes to replacing missing teeth.

In earlier days, people used to get their teeth replaced very easily but then the hygiene maintenance and the method was not convenient nor it was ethical. The dentists used to take the impression and quickly arrange the ceramic teeth on the acrylic bed and place the denture on the missing teeth portion. In those days if the denture misfits the only option used to was to fasten it somehow using the other teeth through wires.

Times changed and so did the method of dentures. Removable and fixed dentures came into existence and they were much better than the previous ones. They were more hygienic and convenient. They were more scientific and were made to fit in the mouth very decently so that the patients get adapted easily.

Dental implants are a recent discovery and till now they have been on the top. We can say that dentistry is not complete without dental implants. However, dental implants come with their own drawbacks. Since they are an invasive procedure, they may not suit everyone. Patients who are prone to diabetes or hypertension or any sort of cardiac disease are not at all indicated for dental implants. Also the patients who are old in age and have a very less jaw width and length should not get the dental implants done.

Pay Attention Towards Your Dentist

If you are neglecting a dental checkup due to the cost, time or fear, you might face all risks. Finally, the bad situation drags you to spend more on dental treatments and rupture you peace of mind. Most of us run to the dental clinic for any sudden problem in teeth. In this piece, it is explained that “When to pay attention towards the dentist?”

  • Sudden pain and swelling in the lymph nodes near face or neck may be a signal for oral cancer. While visiting to diagnose such case, the dentist will check your teeth, tongue and lymph nodes to rule out the suspicion.
  • When the gums turn puffy and they start bleeding while brushing or flossing, it is the time to take an appointment with your dentist
  • In case of infected teeth with bad breath, swelling and inflammation, visiting dental clinic help you to avoid further damage to the adjoining teeth.
  • If you feel your teeth are dull with stains, visiting dental unit will clear out the stains and make your teeth like a pearl. You will be advised to quit the habits which make the teeth staining.
  • When you have a missing tooth and try to hide it, and longing to get a bright and perfect smile, break out the barriers and consult your dentist
  • If you are already fixed up with dental fillings, crowns, dentures, then it is must visit your dentist to confirm your foreign body’s condition.
  • When you suffer from heart ailments, eating disorders, diabetes (or) undergoing radiation, chemotherapy for cancer, hormone replacement therapy, you ought to schedule with your dentist often.
  • Most of the women are caught up with dental problems during their gestational period. So, do not miss making an appointment with the dentist to save your fetus health.
  • Whenever you find any difficulty in swallowing, chewing, eat liquid or soft food until you meet the dentist
  • When you feel parched, it could be the sign of any medicine’s side effect or a medical problem
  • Bad breath, tobacco chewing, smoking cigarettes are dreadful to life. In the later period, the person may find blisters, inflammation in the mouth. Do not hesitate to consult your dentist, if the discomfort persists.
  • In case your jaw is locked, difficulty in biting, it is time to see your dentist avoid further complications.
  • If you feel any discomfort in the mouth, any mouth sores that last for more than a week, then your dentist should examine the teeth. Cold sores, Candidiasis, Leukoplakia, canker sores are the common mouth sores. Each one varies in severity and causes. Mouth sores may be the symptoms of any mouth disease. Infection from bacteria, fungus, viruses, irritation and injuries caused by dentures, braces should be treated immediately to avoid further dental injuries.
  • Plaque is a hard and sticky material that deposits to the teeth, gum line and it contains hazardous bacteria. The building of plaque results in tartar which spoils the teeth color. Irregular brushing, flossing and other criteria cause the plaque formation. If you find any discolored teeth, tartar visually, consult your dentist for further treatment to remove the deposited plaque.

Rosemary Oil Exposed

How & Why Rosemary Oil Gets Used

In ancient times, a number of cultures and religions believed that rosemary was a sacred plant – one with powers and properties to ward off evil spirits and intentions. It was often employed in rituals of protection, purification, love and intellect.

Rosemary oil can be used “neat” – on a cloth, cotton ball or using aromatherapy inhalers. Diffusers and vaporizers are also popular dispersion methods. The essential oil can also be added to shampoos, body butters, massage oils or even added directly to your bath, with or without Epsom salts.

Depending on the application method employed, rosemary has been prized in a host of uncomfortable situations, including:

  • Arthritis
  • Circulation problems
  • Gout
  • Intestinal troubles
  • Mental fatigue
  • Stress
  • Migraines and other headaches
  • Muscle pain
  • Respiratory issues
  • Skin inflammation and puffiness
  • Varicose Veins
  • Thinning Hair
  • An immune booster
  • Indigestion aid
  • Coughs, colds and flu-like symptoms
  • As a study aid and memory tool

Rosemary oil has also been used to treat dandruff, to stimulate hair growth, as a mouthwash and to treat problems like cellulite and stretch marks. As an added bonus, rosemary has also been shown as an effective insect repellant.

Perfect Rosemary Pairings

Rosemary can be great all alone. It’s a common favorite among members of both sexes and depending on who it is for, can be made more masculine or feminine based upon which complimentary oils you pair it with. Prime candidates include bergamot, cedarwood, cinnamon, cypress, citronella, geranium, hyssop, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, peppermint, spearmint and thyme.

Rosemary Risks

Essential oils are very volatile and have powerful properties that can prove hazardous to your health. It’s a good idea to consult with your medical practitioner before launching an aromatherapy protocol.

Those at the greatest risk in regards to rosemary usage include pregnant women, those who suffer from epilepsy and those battling high blood pressure.

Info of Treatments for Postpartum Hair Loss

Add More Nutrients To Your Diet

The root cause of fall is lack of nutrient, you should consult your doctor so that doctor can find out the root cause of hair fall. Eat food items which are rich in Vitamin C, B complex and minerals to stop hair loss. These nutrients are found in legumes, peas, green leafy vegetables, oranges, sprouts, curd, buttermilk, soya, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Consuming these on a regular basis will help in the reduction of hair fall.

Hot Oil Massage

It is a great technique to prevent the fall. Hot oil massage conditions the hair and it improves the blood circulation to every strand of hair cells. It moisturizes the hair and allows forming a protective layer across the hairs so that hairs can be protected from damaging factors such as microbial activities and sun’s harmful rays. So try to massage your hair every alternate day with oil like coconut oil, Bhringraj oil, olive oil, almond oil. You can also make a blend of herbal oils. You can add some herbs like Amla, Ritha, Rosemary, Fenugreek seeds. Soak these herbs for 1-2 days and then massage your hair properly.

Avoid Colors and Over Styling

Avoid artificial coloring products as they are loaded with chemicals. They can affect the growth of hair and cause excess loss. Avoid excessive styling of hair such as avoid heating tools for styling your hair. Try to avoid comb in wet hairs, if possible use wide toothed comb for wet hair.

Dental X-Rays

They provide a picture of your teeth

The check-up x-rays allow your dentist to examine your teeth underneath the gum. Without this picture, the dentist can only see a third of your teeth. If there are any underlying conditions in the root and middle part of your teeth, only an x-ray can show this. The conditions that the x-ray will point out include cavities, impacted teeth, and tooth decay. They are able to show abscesses and any other problem that is beneath your gum. From the image, the dentist can know which treatment plan to follow that will provide the solution to your dental issue.

They come in various types

The various types of x-rays will give a different image of your teeth. Each type serves a different function and it helps to diagnose different conditions. Some such as bitewing seeks for interdental cavities by looking at how the crowns line up. Others offer a full picture of the teeth while others help in identifying problems that go beyond the teeth to cover the jaw and palate. The type you get will depend on what the dentist wants to find out about your teeth.

They are low risk

The x-rays use a low emission of radiation making them safe to use. Thanks to new technology, they have become safer and the results come in after a short while. You, therefore, do not have to worry about the health risks involved in getting such an intimate x-ray shot off your mouth. The risk becomes even lower when the dentist protects other parts of the body from the radiation. You will have peace of mind as you get the procedure done. In any case, the exposure is minimal as it does not take a long time to get it done.

They need not be frequent

The frequency of the x-rays will depend on their necessity. However, for adults that do not have any issues with the teeth, once a year is enough. Growing children and those on a treatment plan require more frequent x-rays. Children’s teeth are growing and it is important to check whether they are growing right. The x-rays will help to do this. If you are under a treatment plan, occasional x-rays will point out the effectiveness of the treatment.

Take Care of Before Foot Surgery

Schedule Your Surgery

Although this should go without saying, one of the first steps in making your surgery a success is scheduling it properly. While you may have some preference in mind for when you would like to have your surgery and when you plan to recover, a good rule of thumb is to avoid surgery within three months of any travel plans you may have. While you may prefer mornings to afternoons and evenings, or vice versa, usually the actual time in which the procedure will occur is not set until a day or two before the procedure.

Pre Operative Visits

Pre-operative visits are crucial to making sure that your surgery is a complete success. The purpose of these visits is multi-fold. For one, your surgeon will review your general health to make sure you are healthy enough for surgery, and will give you information and a detailed plan about the procedure. He or she will also give you instructions for things you should do both before and after the surgery. Likely, this is when you will also be prescribed any pain medications for after the operation, so that you can have them ahead of time. You can make the most of these visits by being very forward and open about your health and medical history.

Check Your Existing Medications

Another thing you need to be completely open about with your surgeon is any medications you are currently taking. The reason for this is that some medications can have a negative effect on certain anesthetics and medications, or can cause excessive bleeding. Avoid any blood thinners or aspirin, as these are known to thin the blood. Additionally, you will want to stop taking anti-inflammatories, any corticosteroids, methotrexate, Enbrel, plaquenil, or any chemotherapy medications, as these have been shown to slow the healing of bone and wounds.

Lay Off Alcohol and Smoking

If you smoke or enjoy a drink here and there, you will likely want to put a stop to these habits prior to the surgery and not resume until well after you have healed. The reason for laying off the vices is that they can increase your risk of complications in the heart and lungs for cigarettes, and because alcohol can have adverse effects when mixed with many post-operative pain medications. Additionally, both of these vices interfere with your body’s absorption of the nutrients and minerals you need to recover fully.

Hair Transplants

Doctors also stated that hair treatment can be of two types. One is slit graft and other is the micrograft. In the former one, the doctors plant 2 to 10 hairs per graft and in the later one 1 or 2 hairs per graft and planted according to the coverage needed. This was when I decided which one should be beneficial for me.

Everyone needs a consultation before any kind of surgery and one of them that I was given was who needs a transplant. What doctors said was pretty simple. Men with pattern baldness, women with thinning hairs, and anyone who has lost hairs due to burn or scalp injury should definitely try out the miracle of hair treatment.

But with everything come its pros and cons. But women with a widespread pattern of hair loss throughout the scalp, people with limited amount of donor site, people who tend to form keloid scars (thick, fibrous scars) after every surgery, and people with hair loss due to medication should stay away from this surgery.

I was scared that hair treatment is a complicated procedure but the doctors told me it is not. The procedure is very simple and involves some of the very basic steps. Here are the steps:

  • First of all the hair follicles from the back of the head are removed and are transplanted to the balding areas at the front portion of the head.
  • Before the starting of the surgery, the hair at the donor area gets trimmed.
  • After the trimming, the donor area is given the local anesthesia.
  • Tissues in the donor area that are bald resistant are identified, then removed surgically and finally the donor area is sutured.
  • The sutured donor area of the patient is then combed so that no one can see it. These sutures are removed almost ten days after the hair treatment surgery.
  • After the local anesthesia is given to the patient, the recipient area is then prepared for the transplant process. This area does not require any trimming or removal of the hair.
  • Incisions in the recipient area are made in an irregular way follicular unit grafts are then placed in them.
  • Smaller grafts are placed in the front of the hairline and denser grafts are then placed behind.
  • These incisions would be visible in the operated area just after the transplant.
  • After a few weeks of the surgery, the incisions heal and the red marks also disappear naturally and it all looks very natural.

As impressive this surgery is, there are also some facts that I got to know about this surgery are:

  • After the surgery hairs start to grow between 2-4 weeks of transplant.
  • The local anesthesia makes this procedure painless and hence patient can be discharged the same day.
  • It is not a nonsurgical hair restoration in which pre-chosen base is fixed on a scalp.
  • It does not mean that you will have wavy hairs as the result varies from person to person and depends on their natural hairs.
  • It is not a solution to every problem and every case is different.
  • A number of grafts increase the cost.