Month: April 2019

Composition of a Tooth

Tooth Enamel

The part of the teeth you’re most familiar with is the tooth enamel. This is the hard, translucent, outer covering of the tooth. It is this part of the tooth that cavities can destroy and leave the tooth vulnerable to further decay and disease. The enamel is said to be the hardest and most mineral-packed substance of the body. Tooth enamel is made up of mostly minerals, with some organic compounds and water. The enamel is the thickest (and strongest) at the cusp of the tooth and is weakest along the tooth edges.

As we age, the years of use, abuse and wear and tear, the enamel slowly wears off in what is called attrition.

What is enamel made of? Crystalline calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite accounts for most of the minerals found in tooth enamel. These minerals give teeth their strength, as well as their brittleness. Enamel also doesn’t contain collagen like other parts of the tooth. Tuftelins, ameloblastsins, ameloblenins and enamelins are proteins that help develop enamel.

Dentin

Underneath the enamel is a porous, yellowish material called dentin. It is this material that gives teeth their classic yellow, or preferably white color. Dentin is made up of inorganic and organic materials as well as water. It is made of mineralized connective tissue and collagen proteins. Dentinogenesis, or the process of forming dentin involves the secretion by odontoblasts of the tooth pulp. Dentin contains a matrix of microscopic tubules that don’t criss-cross each other. The length of the tubules are determined by the radius of one’s tooth. Dentin is the substance between enamel or cementum and the pulp chamber.

While dentin isn’t as strong as enamel, it still gives your teeth extra strength, support and protection. Because it is softer than enamel, it decays more rapidly and is subject to severe cavities if not properly treated, but dentin still acts as a protective layer and supports the crown of the tooth.

Cementum

The innermost layer of the tooth is called the cementum. This part of the tooth resembles bone and it covers the tooth pulp. Like the tooth enamel and dentin, the cementum is made of inorganic (mostly hydroxyapatite), organic (mostly collagen) and water. Cementum is softer than the enamel and dentin and is secreted by cementoblasts that are in the root of the tooth. It too has a yellowish color and is the thickest around the apex of the tooth root. This part of the tooth has the purpose of being a medium through which the periodontal ligaments (the ligaments of the gums) attach to the tooth, giving the tooth stability.

Tooth Pulp

In the center of each tooth is the pulp. The pulp consists of connective tissue that contains nerves and blood vessels. The tooth pulp supplies the tooth with blood and nutrients as well as infection-fighting macrophages and T lymphocytes. It is in the pulp where the odontoblasts which make dentin are located as well as nerve endings, which give the tooth the ability to react to hot or cold food and drink.

Popular Food Fads

Fruit juices are as good as fresh fruits

Many people prefer to drink fruit juices as compared to eating fresh fruit. Cold juice is a lot more refreshing than eating fruits. However, juicing removes the healthy fiber content of fruits, though it still retains the vitamins and minerals that are present in the fruit. Fiber is an important part of our diet, and helps to keep our cholesterol low and bowels healthy. When possible, opt for fresh fruit rather than fruit juice.

Coconut oil is good for you

This has been a controversial topic for quite sometime now, but things are now getting clearer. It was previously believed that coconut oil is good for you, but there does not appear to be any scientific evidence to support that. In fact, coconut oil is loaded with harmful saturated fats that are responsible for the clogging up of the heart arteries. The American Heart Association issued a statement recently debunking the health benefits of coconut oil, stating that is does more harm than good. When possible, use olive oil or rice bran oil.

A gluten free diet is better for health

This is a popular food fad. There is absolutely no truth in the statement that gluten free food is good for you and healthier than regular food. In fact, gluten free food is only good for those who have gluten intolerance or a condition called coeliac disease. Opt for whole wheat items instead as a healthy food choice. In fact, make sure you choose a diet that is high in soluble fiber, as this has a number of properties ofprotecting your heart.

Eggs are bad for you

While the yolks in eggs can increase cholesterol levels to an extent, they do not seem to do so in worrying levels at all. Instead, they are packed with vitamins and good fats along with the highest quality protein. Try and limit yourself to no more than 3 yolks a week.

Anti-oxidant supplements are better

Using anti-oxidant supplements are in no way superior to eating fruits and vegetables that contain them. In fact, it is better to opt for natural sources due to the added benefits they have. Keep your choice of vegetables colorful and expand your choice and variety in your cooking.

Build Muscle Fast

Train For Strength

If you want to build muscle, you must train for strength. A stronger muscle is a bigger muscle because the fibres have to grow to accommodate greater load. If you started out bench pressing 25 kilos, can you imagine how much bigger your chest, shoulders and arms would be if you increased your Bench Press to 100 kilos?

Stick To The Basics

For sure, you will put on size when you apply resistance to a muscle. But not all exercises are created equal. Basic, compound exercises which use different muscle groups build muscle faster than cables, machines or bodyweight training. Lat Pulldowns build your latissimus dorsi muscles, rear shoulders and biceps. But Deadlifts work your legs, glutes, hips, lower back, middle and upper back, traps, rear shoulders, arms and abs.

Eat On Schedule

It is very important to regularly feed your body with valuable nutrients throughout the day and especially the hours after you exercise.

Consuming plenty of protein and carbs within around 30 minutes of your workout will probably make the single biggest difference in your muscle building program.

The reason for this is that this time period is when your body MOST NEEDS FUEL to rebuild your muscles. If there’s no fuel or not enough, this will limit your muscle building progress.

The amount of calories you need will depend on your somatotype and your fitness goals.

Throughout the day, you will have to eat every two to three hours to keep your body in an anabolic environment the entire day. Anabolic means to support muscle growth.

Finally, always get good quality sleep. The biggest misconception about building muscle is that you grow while training. Exercise merely stimulates muscle building but actual growth happens during rest and recovery and only with the right fuel. Aim for 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night.

Headaches in Children

Scalp, skull, and brain

The brain is housed inside the skull bone. The skin covering the head is called the scalp. Many muscles, nerves, and blood vessels crisscross the thickness of the scalp.

Tension or stress headaches

Emotions, both bad and good, can cause headaches. More commonly, in the case of headaches, bad emotions fire up the muscles of the head and face.

The frontalis muscle stretches over the forehead and the occipitalis covers the back of the head. The temporalis muscle is located on the sides of the head. The masseter muscle is in the cheek area and parts of the trapezius muscle extend to the upper neck.

Nearby nerves pick up noxious tensions from these muscles and transmit them to the pain awareness center of the brain.

Migraine headaches

Unlike a tension headache, which is clearly known to arise from the tightening muscles of the head and neck area, the cause of a migraine headache is still debated. A disturbance of the brain’s biological and physiological elements-hormones, peptides, dilatation and constriction of brain blood vessels-is implicated.

Other causes of headaches

Headaches also often go with many illnesses. Malaria, ear infection, sinus infection, throat infection, runny nose, and toothache are examples of diseases which come with a headache. This kind of headache goes away once the illness has run its course.

Three pictures of headaches recently seen in my private office

  • Take the case of a seventeen-year-old female who has had headaches on and off over a couple of months. She wears music earphones and plays music all night long. A constant bombardment of music to the ear, together with a lack of sleep, contributed to her headache.
  • There was an 18-year-old boy who presented with a headache for the first time. He goes to school from 7 am until 5 pm, and then works in a factory from 6 pm until 11 pm. In between school and job, he has plenty of personal errands to run. He hardly sleeps.
  • Then there is a nine-year-old male whose mother has been picking him up twice a week from school because of headaches in class. He throws up when a headache comes. Light and sound bother him a lot during the headache episodes. His mother and grandmother have suffered from migraine headaches their entire lives. The child saw a neurologist, who sent him for imaging studies, MRI of the brain, which was normal. I then confirmed he was also suffering from migraine and started preventative medication.

Evaluating children with headaches

When presented with a child who complains of a headache that comes and goes, be it at a daily, weekly or monthly interval, the practitioner must consider one of these conditions.

  • Is the child merely repeating what they hear from the nearest caregiver, for example a grandmother, mother, or older sister, who goes around saying ‘I have a headache’? I have singled out women because men tend to internalize suffering.
  • Does the child genuinely have a common-type headache, also known as a tension headache, which many adults experience? Sufferers feel a dull aching pain and pressure over the forehead, sides and back of the head, and sometimes neck.
  • Does the boy or girl have a particularly agonizing kind of a headache called migraine headache, that runs in the family, lasts for hours at a time, is worsened by exposure to light and sound, occurs on one side of the head, and is accompanied or preceded by tummy-ache, nausea, and vomiting?
  • Does the youngster, especially when under age five, have a more ominous medical condition such as infection around the brain, bleeding in the brain, or a tumor in the brain? Clues include a headache which begins early in the morning, keeps the child awake at night, and is worse when coughing, sneezing, urinating or passing stools.
  • Is this a one of a kind headache, a headache so severe that it surpasses any pain the patient has suffered in the past? This description may point to a lethal condition: bleeding in the brain, the ballooning or aneurysm of vessels in the brain, and other surgical emergencies.

Flat Belly Foods

Yogurt

Did you know the diet secret of those curvy French ladies; yes you guessed it right – yogurt. Yogurt has been an integral part of health diet for Indians and French since a long time. Yogurt is rich in its calcium, carbs and proteins. Hence a perfect balanced meal. One should be cautious though in reading the label before picking up yogurt as some are loaded with added sugar and fat.

French women take at least one or two yogurt a day. Generally one takes yogurt at breakfast to balance the calorie intake. Indians take yogurt in a number of ways and the most popular form is glass butter milk at breakfast and after lunch. It keeps the stomach full and body hydrated. Low in calories and high in nutrition makes it a perfect diet for weight watchers.

Yogurt is one food that could be termed as a complete nourishing meal for fat burning and giving you that sexy belly.

Water and Green Tea

Although water is not a food item, I am including it here as it is an integral part of our food plan. Did you know that drinking 8 to 10 glasses per day helps you get that flat tummy that you always wanted? Research establishes this as a proven scientific fact. Water, they say flushes toxins out of the system, it reduces or regulates fluid retention in the body that gives you that ugly bulge on the tummy and it improves your digestive system. The end result is that you get a flat tummy.

Water could be taken in any form except the carbonated ones, as that gives you a bloated feeling. Those who do not like water so much could settle for green tea which seems to have amazing effect on your fat burning mechanism. The compound catechins in green tea are known to improve calorie burning. This compound also helps the body to release the fat from their cells and improves liver functions resulting in faster fat burning. In fact catechins compound could be called as fuel for burning our body fat especially, the stomach fat. Experts recommend consumption of around five to six cups of green tea daily for best and quick results.

Cauliflower

If Cauliflower lacks in anything that is the starch and that is exactly what you want to avoid from your diet to get those perfect curves. So why wait, here is nature’s gift to you, go ahead and include cauliflower in your diet plan, any amount you want. And guess what, cauliflower is a perfect ingredient for that crunchy salad. And here is more, Cauliflower is a perfect source of calcium, vitamins and minerals like phosphorus and vitamin K. Did you know that cauliflower releases only about 25 calories per serving of an ounce? It’s low calorie value, practically zero fat content and high source of minerals and vitamins make it an excellent ingredient for a flat belly diet. Give cauliflower the place it deserves in your diet.

Soups

The food experts consider soups as appetite builders. That is why soups are generally served before the meal. However if you were to take a vegetable broth with additional water content, it will not only fill you before the meal but also provide the body with much needed fiber that the vegetables are known to contain. A diluted soup with cabbage, spinach, cauliflower and carrots would be an excellent flat tummy diet food. There is much more to soups, forget about taking soup at lunch or dinner, how about a soup as a snack, it is simply perfect.

Lentils

Lentils and beans are low in their fat content but rich in fiber, proteins and vitamins. They even contain good amount of minerals like the magnesium. These properties make lentils a very good food for a flat stomach diet plan. One can eat lentils in a number of ways, cooked in thick gravy, soaked and steam cooked or simply sprouted and mixed with your crunchy greens. One even get roasted and salted lentils as a crunchy savory. Furthermore, lentils could be taken as a full meal or as an accompaniment with a main course. At the end of the day they give you all the positive nutrition without adding fat to your body.

3 Apples

Yes, not just one or two, you must eat three apples a day. The reason is simple. Apples are rich in insoluble fiber and if you eat an apple before each meal, the fiber will make you feel full resulting in your eating less, yet not compromising on your nutrition. Remember that the success mantra for weight loss is to eat a calorie deficient diet which will make your body to draw of the calories stored in those fatty layers on the body, ultimately burning them and giving you a flat, curvy belly.

Almonds

Among various types of nuts, almonds are known to have the lowest amount of energy and they are quite nourishing and filling due to their high fiber content. Almonds could be a very good and convenient snacking option. Natural almonds should be preferred over roasted or salted ones to ensure complete nutrition. Since they are filling, they also help overcome hunger pangs and overeating.

Burn Extra 300 Calories a Day

  1. Walk – Avoid sitting down at one place for longer and take some walk. Have a brisk walk for an hour and 21 minutes to burn 303 calories. Seems boring? Split it up into five 20-minute quick sessions throughout the day. Walk your dog, walk to work, or exercise your legs on treadmill.
  2. Stand up – Have desk job? Be sure to stand for a total of 2 hours and 20 minutes throughout a day to burn 303 calories.
  3. Clean up – Scrub, mop, setup furniture, vacuum, and de-clutter your space to keep your home in excellent condition to burn 301 calories within an hour and half.
  4. Keep running – Go out with your dog or kids, play soccer, or just run around for 34 minutes to burn 308 calories.
  5. Lace up the skates – Live up your childhood memories again with outdoor or indoor ice skating for 38 minutes to burn 302 calories.
  6. Stretch yourself – You can burn 300 calories with fast-paced vinyasa yoga for an hour and 7 minutes. Perform morning and evening yoga sessions yourself or take a class of power yoga.
  7. Jumping Jack – Do jumping jacks for four minutes by setting an alarm every hour. It is the fastest way to burn 300 calories or more in 8 mini sessions to uplift your mood.
  8. Skiing – It is fun-filled adventure activity which doesn’t feel like hard work. Within 45 minutes, you can burn up to 306 calories within just 45 minutes.

Modern Way To Replace Missing Teeth

Dental implants are titanium based small screws which are made to fit inside a jaw bone. Implants come in a variety of measurements. They vary in sizes according to the tooth. There are however two components of dental implants. One is the titanium screw and the other is the tooth portion. The titanium screw is drilled inside the jaw and left for further osseointegration.

This is a procedure of blending in of the two components together i.e. bone and the titanium post. When the bone gets completely adapted to the foreign body, i.e. after about three months, it is time for the next appointment to fix the tooth portion on the titanium post. The tooth portion is something that will be seen in the oral cavity.

Dental implants are undoubtedly the most effective, efficient and the most modern way to replace the teeth. There are many other dentures which have been and are being used by the dentists even today as they are more feasible cost wise as well as technique wise. The removable dentures are the oldest treatment option when it comes to replacing missing teeth.

In earlier days, people used to get their teeth replaced very easily but then the hygiene maintenance and the method was not convenient nor it was ethical. The dentists used to take the impression and quickly arrange the ceramic teeth on the acrylic bed and place the denture on the missing teeth portion. In those days if the denture misfits the only option used to was to fasten it somehow using the other teeth through wires.

Times changed and so did the method of dentures. Removable and fixed dentures came into existence and they were much better than the previous ones. They were more hygienic and convenient. They were more scientific and were made to fit in the mouth very decently so that the patients get adapted easily.

Dental implants are a recent discovery and till now they have been on the top. We can say that dentistry is not complete without dental implants. However, dental implants come with their own drawbacks. Since they are an invasive procedure, they may not suit everyone. Patients who are prone to diabetes or hypertension or any sort of cardiac disease are not at all indicated for dental implants. Also the patients who are old in age and have a very less jaw width and length should not get the dental implants done.

Squats Versus Deadlifts

Which should you choose? Which exercise will give you the best results for your time invested? Let us take a look at this comparison…

  1. Quad Focus. If you are hoping to strengthen your quads first and foremost, you will want to opt for a squat focus as often as you can. Focussing on squats will naturally mean you will hit the quads primarily, with your hamstrings and glutes coming in second. While both compound exercises will hit the whole body when one is the priority you have to consider which one is going to be worked mostly in each movement you do.
  2. Posterior Chain Focus. If, on the other hand, you want to work on the posterior chain, deadlifts should be your go-to. You will feel yourself hitting the back, glutes, and hamstrings in every deadlift you complete.

Injury Risk. You will need to think carefully about your current injury status and any risks you may have for injury. Do you work in an occupation where you are at risk for specific injuries? If so, select the exercises in your workout accordingly.

Deadlifts put you at a higher risk for low back injuries while squats will put you at a higher risk for knee injuries. If you suffer pain in either of these areas, be mindful when doing these exercises.

Cardiovascular Fitness. If you want to boost your cardiovascular fitness level, squats for most people are what will do this best. You will move through a broader range of motion when doing the squat: you will engage your heart more.

Also, you can get your heart rate up quite high by doing a set of 100 bodyweight squats, but if you were to do a set of a 100 lightweight deadlifts, you would likely not feel the same.

To get your heart rate up on deadlifts, you typically have to be lifting more weight.

Calorie Burn. Finally, regarding overall calorie burn, squats will come out slightly ahead because you move through a broader range of motion with this exercise and, therefore, burn more calories with every inch of the movement pattern.

All in all, both exercises will come reasonably close regarding total calorie burn, so it is not wise to choose one over the other based on this.

There are the main points to think about when setting up your workout plan. Ideally, you will include squats and deadlifts in your program for optimal results.

Pay Attention Towards Your Dentist

If you are neglecting a dental checkup due to the cost, time or fear, you might face all risks. Finally, the bad situation drags you to spend more on dental treatments and rupture you peace of mind. Most of us run to the dental clinic for any sudden problem in teeth. In this piece, it is explained that “When to pay attention towards the dentist?”

  • Sudden pain and swelling in the lymph nodes near face or neck may be a signal for oral cancer. While visiting to diagnose such case, the dentist will check your teeth, tongue and lymph nodes to rule out the suspicion.
  • When the gums turn puffy and they start bleeding while brushing or flossing, it is the time to take an appointment with your dentist
  • In case of infected teeth with bad breath, swelling and inflammation, visiting dental clinic help you to avoid further damage to the adjoining teeth.
  • If you feel your teeth are dull with stains, visiting dental unit will clear out the stains and make your teeth like a pearl. You will be advised to quit the habits which make the teeth staining.
  • When you have a missing tooth and try to hide it, and longing to get a bright and perfect smile, break out the barriers and consult your dentist
  • If you are already fixed up with dental fillings, crowns, dentures, then it is must visit your dentist to confirm your foreign body’s condition.
  • When you suffer from heart ailments, eating disorders, diabetes (or) undergoing radiation, chemotherapy for cancer, hormone replacement therapy, you ought to schedule with your dentist often.
  • Most of the women are caught up with dental problems during their gestational period. So, do not miss making an appointment with the dentist to save your fetus health.
  • Whenever you find any difficulty in swallowing, chewing, eat liquid or soft food until you meet the dentist
  • When you feel parched, it could be the sign of any medicine’s side effect or a medical problem
  • Bad breath, tobacco chewing, smoking cigarettes are dreadful to life. In the later period, the person may find blisters, inflammation in the mouth. Do not hesitate to consult your dentist, if the discomfort persists.
  • In case your jaw is locked, difficulty in biting, it is time to see your dentist avoid further complications.
  • If you feel any discomfort in the mouth, any mouth sores that last for more than a week, then your dentist should examine the teeth. Cold sores, Candidiasis, Leukoplakia, canker sores are the common mouth sores. Each one varies in severity and causes. Mouth sores may be the symptoms of any mouth disease. Infection from bacteria, fungus, viruses, irritation and injuries caused by dentures, braces should be treated immediately to avoid further dental injuries.
  • Plaque is a hard and sticky material that deposits to the teeth, gum line and it contains hazardous bacteria. The building of plaque results in tartar which spoils the teeth color. Irregular brushing, flossing and other criteria cause the plaque formation. If you find any discolored teeth, tartar visually, consult your dentist for further treatment to remove the deposited plaque.

Rosemary Oil Exposed

How & Why Rosemary Oil Gets Used

In ancient times, a number of cultures and religions believed that rosemary was a sacred plant – one with powers and properties to ward off evil spirits and intentions. It was often employed in rituals of protection, purification, love and intellect.

Rosemary oil can be used “neat” – on a cloth, cotton ball or using aromatherapy inhalers. Diffusers and vaporizers are also popular dispersion methods. The essential oil can also be added to shampoos, body butters, massage oils or even added directly to your bath, with or without Epsom salts.

Depending on the application method employed, rosemary has been prized in a host of uncomfortable situations, including:

  • Arthritis
  • Circulation problems
  • Gout
  • Intestinal troubles
  • Mental fatigue
  • Stress
  • Migraines and other headaches
  • Muscle pain
  • Respiratory issues
  • Skin inflammation and puffiness
  • Varicose Veins
  • Thinning Hair
  • An immune booster
  • Indigestion aid
  • Coughs, colds and flu-like symptoms
  • As a study aid and memory tool

Rosemary oil has also been used to treat dandruff, to stimulate hair growth, as a mouthwash and to treat problems like cellulite and stretch marks. As an added bonus, rosemary has also been shown as an effective insect repellant.

Perfect Rosemary Pairings

Rosemary can be great all alone. It’s a common favorite among members of both sexes and depending on who it is for, can be made more masculine or feminine based upon which complimentary oils you pair it with. Prime candidates include bergamot, cedarwood, cinnamon, cypress, citronella, geranium, hyssop, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, peppermint, spearmint and thyme.

Rosemary Risks

Essential oils are very volatile and have powerful properties that can prove hazardous to your health. It’s a good idea to consult with your medical practitioner before launching an aromatherapy protocol.

Those at the greatest risk in regards to rosemary usage include pregnant women, those who suffer from epilepsy and those battling high blood pressure.